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The document delves into election laws in Bangladesh, shedding light on the purpose, structure, and functions of the Election Commission established in 1972. According to the Constitution, the President appoints the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners, ensuring their independence in carrying out election-related duties. Various orders, rules, and regulations, such as the Representation of the People Order 1972, Conduct of Election Rules 1972, and Code of Conduct 1996, guide the procedures and measures for elections.

 

The Representation of the People Order 1972 outlines the election process, including the appointment of Returning Officers, submission and scrutiny of nomination papers, withdrawal of candidature, and the conditions for uncontested elections. It also addresses election expenses, security deposits, and the submission of election petitions.

 

The Election Officials (Special Provision) Act, 1991, focuses on discipline and control of election officials to ensure free and fair elections. It outlines service conditions, regulations, and punishments for election officials who violate election-related orders.

 

The Conduct of Election Rules, 1972, established in consultation with the Election Commission, covers various aspects of the election process, such as nomination paper appeals, publication of validly nominated candidates, declaration of results, and the preparation of ballot papers.

 

The Code of Conduct 1996, framed by the Election Commission, prohibits the use of government machinery for election purposes, restricts the size and type of election campaign materials, and emphasizes equal rights for political parties and candidates in election campaigns.

 

The document also mentions developments since 2008, such as the Election Commission appointing its personnel for byelections and local elections, the introduction of a digital voter database in 2007-08, and the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) starting in 2010. Changes to the People's Representative Order-1972, including mandatory registration of political parties with the Election Commission and promoting women leadership, are also highlighted. Additionally, the document notes amendments in 2013, excluding the armed forces from law enforcement agencies for election deployment.